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Glossary

This glossary describes some of the terms used in this manual. Where terms can have several meanings, the meaning presented here is intended.

Advanced High-performance Bus (AHB)

The AMBA Advanced High-performance Bus system connects embedded processors such as an ARM core to high-performance peripherals, DMA controllers, on-chip memory, and interfaces. It is a high-speed, high-bandwidth bus that supports multi-master bus management to maximize system performance.

See Also Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture and AHB-Lite.

Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA)

AMBA is the ARM open standard for multi-master on-chip buses, capable of running with multiple masters and slaves. It is an on-chip bus specification that details a strategy for the interconnection and management of functional blocks that make up a System-on-Chip (SoC). It aids in the development of embedded processors with one or more CPUs or signal processors and multiple peripherals. AMBA complements a reusable design methodology by defining a common backbone for SoC modules. AHB conforms to this standard.

See Also Advanced High-performance Bus and AHB-Lite.

Advanced Peripheral Bus (APB)

The AMBA Advanced Peripheral Bus is a simpler bus protocol than AHB. It is designed for use with ancillary or general-purpose peripherals such as timers, interrupt controllers, UARTs, and I/O ports. Connection to the main system bus is through a system-to-peripheral bus bridge that helps to reduce system power consumption.

See Also Advanced High-performance Bus.

AHB

See Advanced High-performance Bus.

AHB-Lite

AHB-Lite is a subset of the full AHB specification. It is intended for use in designs where only a single AHB master is used. This can be a simple single AHB master system or a multi-layer AHB system where there is only one AHB master on a layer.

Aligned

Refers to data items stored so that their address is divisible by the highest power of two that divides their size. Aligned words and halfwords therefore have addresses that are divisible by four and two respectively. The terms word-aligned and halfword-aligned therefore refer to addresses that are divisible by four and two respectively. The terms byte-aligned and doubleword-aligned are defined similarly.

AMBA

See Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture.

APB

See Advanced Peripheral Bus.

Architecture

The organization of hardware and/or software that characterizes a processor and its attached components, and enables devices with similar characteristics to be grouped together when describing their behavior, for example, Harvard architecture, instruction set architecture, ARMv6 architecture.

ARM state

A processor that is executing ARM (32-bit) instructions is operating in ARM state.

See Also Thumb state.

Big-endian

Memory organization in which the least significant byte of a word is at a higher address than the most significant byte.

See Also Little-endian and Endianness.

Branch folding

Branch folding is a technique where, on the prediction of most branches, the branch instruction is completely removed from the instruction stream presented to the execution pipeline. Branch folding can significantly improve the performance of branches, taking the CPI for branches below 1.

Branch prediction

The process of predicting if conditional branches are to be taken or not in pipelined processors. Successfully predicting if branches are to be taken enables the processor to prefetch the instructions following a branch before the condition is fully resolved. Branch prediction can be done in software or by using custom hardware. Branch prediction techniques are categorized as static, in which the prediction decision is decided before run time, and dynamic, in which the prediction decision can change during program execution.

Breakpoint

A breakpoint is a mechanism provided by debuggers to identify an instruction at which program execution is halted unconditionally. Breakpoints are inserted by programmers to allow inspection of register contents, memory locations, and/or variable values at fixed points in the program execution to test that the program is operating correctly. Breakpoints are removed after the program is successfully tested.

See also Watchpoint.

Burst

A group of transfers to consecutive addresses. Because the addresses are consecutive, there is no requirement to supply an address for any of the transfers after the first one. This increases the speed at which the group of transfers can occur. Bursts over AHB buses are controlled using the HBURST signals to specify if transfers are single, four-beat, eight-beat, or 16-beat bursts, and to specify how the addresses are incremented.

Byte invariant

Refers to the way of switching between little-endian and big-endian operation that leaves byte accesses entirely unchanged. Accesses to other data sizes are necessarily affected by such endianness switches.

Byte lane strobe

An AHB signal, HBSTRB, that is used for unaligned or mixed-endian data accesses to determine which byte lanes are active in a transfer. One bit of HBSTRB corresponds to eight bits of the data bus.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The part of a processor that contains the ALU, the registers, and the instruction decode logic and control circuitry. Also commonly known as the processor core.

Clock gating

Gating a clock signal for a macrocell with a control signal, and using the modified clock that results to control the operating state of the macrocell.

Cold reset

Also known as power-on reset. Starting the processor by turning power on. Turning power off and then back on again clears main memory and many internal settings. Some program failures can lock up the processor and require a cold reset to enable the system to be used again. In other cases, only a warm reset is required.

See Also Warm reset.

Coprocessor

A processor that supplements the main CPU. It carries out additional functions that the main CPU cannot perform. Usually used for floating-point math calculations, signal processing, or memory management.

Core reset

See Warm reset.

CPI

See Cycles per instruction.

CPRT

Coprocessor Register Transfer

CPU

See Central Processing Unit.

DAP

See Debug Access Port.

Debug Access Port (DAP)

A TAP block that acts as an AMBA (AHB or AHB-Lite) master for access to a system bus. The DAP is the term used to encompass a set of modular blocks that support system wide debug. The DAP is a modular component, intended to be extendable to support optional access to multiple systems such as memory mapped AHB and CoreSight APB through a single debug interface.

Doubleword

A 64-bit data item. The contents are taken as being an unsigned integer unless otherwise stated.

EmbeddedICE logic

An on-chip logic block that provides TAP-based debug support for ARM processor cores. It is accessed through the TAP controller on the ARM core using the JTAG interface.

EmbeddedICE-RT

The JTAG-based hardware provided by debuggable ARM processors to aid debugging in real-time.

Embedded Trace Macrocell (ETM)

A hardware macrocell that outputs instruction and data trace information on a trace port.

Endianness

Byte ordering. The scheme that determines the order in which successive bytes of a data word are stored in memory.

See Also Little-endian and Big-endian.

ETM

See Embedded Trace Macrocell.

Exception

An event that occurs during program operation that makes continued normal operation inadvisable or impossible, and so makes it necessary to change the flow of control in a program. Exceptions can be caused by error conditions in hardware or software. The processor can respond to exceptions by running appropriate exception handler code that attempts to remedy the error condition, and either restarts normal execution or ends the program in a controlled way.

Exception vector

One of a number of fixed addresses in low memory, or in high memory if high vectors are configured, that contains the first instruction of the corresponding interrupt service routine.

Fast Context Switch Extension (FCSE)

This enables cached processors with an MMU to present different addresses to the rest of the memory system for different software processes even when those processes are using identical addresses.

FCSE

See Fast Context Switch Extension. .

Flat address mapping

A system of organizing memory in which each physical address contained within the memory space is the same as its corresponding virtual address.

Half-rate clocking

Dividing the trace clock by two so that the TPA can sample trace data signals on both the rising and falling edges of the trace clock. The primary purpose of half-rate clocking is to reduce the signal transition rate on the trace clock of an ASIC for very high-speed systems.

High vectors

Alternative locations for exception vectors. The high vector address range is near the top of the address space, rather than at the bottom.

Implementation- defined

A feature that is not architecturally defined, and which might vary between implementations. The feature is defined and documented for each individual implementation.

Instruction cycle count

The number of cycles for which an instruction occupies the Execute stage of the pipeline.

Little-endian

Memory organization where the least significant byte of a word is at a lower address than the most significant byte.

See Also Big-endian and Endianness.

Monitor mode

One of two mutually exclusive debug modes. In monitor mode the ARM9 processor enables a software abort handler provided by the debug monitor or operating system debug task. When a breakpoint or watchpoint is encountered, this enables vital system interrupts to continue to be serviced while normal program execution is suspended.

See Also Halt mode.

Power-on reset

See Cold reset.

Prefetching

In pipelined processors, the process of fetching instructions from memory to fill up the pipeline before the preceding instructions have finished executing. Prefetching an instruction does not mean that the instruction must be executed.

Processor

A contraction of microprocessor. A processor includes the CPU or core, plus additional components such as memory, and interfaces. These are combined as a single macrocell, that can be fabricated on an integrated circuit.

Read

Reads are defined as memory operations that have the semantics of a load. That is, the ARM instructions LDM, LDRD, LDC, LDR, LDRT, LDRSH, LDRH, LDRSB, LDRB, LDRBT, LDREX, RFE, STREX, SWP, and SWPB, and the Thumb instructions LDM, LDR, LDRSH, LDRH, LDRSB, LDRB, and POP. Java instructions that are accelerated by hardware can cause a number of reads to occur, according to the state of the Java stack and the implementation of the Java hardware acceleration.

Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC)

A computer architecture that reduces chip complexity by limiting the complexity of instructions that can be executed. In RISC computers, there is no microcode layer, and instruction size is fixed.

Register

A temporary storage location used to hold binary data until it is ready to be used.

Reserved

A field in a control register or instruction format is reserved if the field is to be defined by the implementation, or produces Unpredictable results if the contents of the field are not zero. These fields are reserved for use in future extensions of the architecture or are implementation‑specific. All reserved bits not used by the implementation must be written as zero and are read as zero.

RISC

See Reduced Instruction Set Computer.

SBO

See Should Be One.

SBZ

See Should Be Zero.

SBZP

See Should Be Zero or Preserved.

Scan chain

A scan chain is made up of serially-connected devices that implement boundary scan technology using a standard JTAG TAP interface. Each device contains at least one TAP controller containing shift registers that form the chain connected between TDI and TDO, through which test data is shifted. Processors can contain several shift registers to enable you to access selected parts of the device.

Should Be One (SBO)

Should be written as 1 (or all 1s for bit fields) by software. Writing a 0 produces Unpredictable results.

Should Be Zero (SBZ)

Should be written as 0 (or all 0s for bit fields) by software. Writing a 1 produces Unpredictable results.

Should Be Zero or Preserved (SBZP)

Should be written as 0 (or all 0s for bit fields) by software, or preserved by writing the same value back that has been previously read from the same field on the same processor.

Synchronization primitive

The memory synchronization primitive instructions are instructions that are used to ensure memory synchronization, that is, the LDREX, STREX, SWP, and SWPB instructions.

TAP

See Test Access Port.

Test Access Port (TAP)

The collection of four mandatory terminals and one optional terminal that form the input/output and control interface to a JTAG boundary-scan architecture. The mandatory terminals are TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK. The optional terminal is TRST.

TPA

See Test Port Analyzer.

Trace Port Analyzer

A hardware device that captures trace information output on a trace port. This can be a low-cost product designed specifically for trace acquisition, or a logic analyzer.

Thumb instruction

A halfword that specifies an operation for an ARM processor in Thumb state to perform. Thumb instructions must be halfword-aligned.

Thumb state

A processor that is executing Thumb (16-bit) halfword aligned instructions is operating in Thumb state.

Undefined

Indicates an instruction that generates an Undefined instruction trap. See the ARM Architectural Reference Manual for more information on ARM exceptions.

Unpredictable

For reads, the data returned when reading from this location is unpredictable. It can have any value. For writes, writing to this location causes unpredictable behavior, or an unpredictable change in device configuration. Unpredictable instructions must not halt or hang the processor, or any part of the system.

Warm reset

Also known as a core reset. Initializes the majority of the processor excluding the debug controller and debug logic. This type of reset is useful if you are using the debugging features of a processor.

Watchpoint

A watchpoint is a mechanism provided by debuggers to halt program execution when the data contained by a particular memory address is changed. Watchpoints are inserted by the programmer to enable inspection of register contents, memory locations, and variable values when memory is written to test that the program is operating correctly. Watchpoints are removed after the program is successfully tested. See also Breakpoint.

Write

Writes are defined as operations that have the semantics of a store. That is, the ARM instructions SRS, STM, STRD, STC, STRT, STRH, STRB, STRBT, STREX, SWP, and SWPB, and the Thumb instructions STM, STR, STRH, STRB, and PUSH. Java instructions that are accelerated by hardware can cause a number of writes to occur, according to the state of the Java stack and the implementation of the Java hardware acceleration.

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