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Glossary

This glossary describes some of the terms used in technical documents from ARM.

Advanced eXtensible Interface (AXI)

A bus protocol that supports separate address/control and data phases, unaligned data transfers using byte strobes, burst-based transactions with only start address issued, separate read and write data channels to enable low-cost DMA, ability to issue multiple outstanding addresses, out-of-order transaction completion, and easy addition of register stages to provide timing closure.The AXI protocol also includes optional extensions to cover signaling for low-power operation.

AXI is targeted at high performance, high clock frequency system designs and includes a number of features that make it very suitable for high speed sub-micron interconnect.

Advanced High-performance Bus (AHB)

A bus protocol with a fixed pipeline between address/control and data phases. It only supports a subset of the functionality provided by the AMBA™ AXI protocol. The full AMBA AHB protocol specification includes a number of features that are not commonly required for master and slave IP developments and ARM recommends only a subset of the protocol is usually used. This subset is defined as the AMBA AHB-Lite protocol.

See Also Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture and AHB-Lite.

Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA)

A family of protocol specifications that describe a strategy for the interconnect. AMBA is the ARM open standard for on-chip buses. It is an on-chip bus specification that describes in detail a strategy for the interconnection and management of functional blocks that make up a System-on-Chip (SoC). It aids in the development of embedded processors with one or more CPUs or signal processors and multiple peripherals. AMBA complements a reusable design methodology by defining a common backbone for SoC modules.

See Also Advanced High-performance Bus and AHB-Lite.

Advanced Peripheral Bus (APB)

A simpler bus protocol than AXI and AHB. It is designed for use with ancillary or general-purpose peripherals such as timers, interrupt controllers, UARTs, and I/O ports. Connection to the main system bus is through a system-to-peripheral bus bridge that helps to reduce system power consumption.

See Also Advanced High-performance Bus.

AHB

See Advanced High-performance Bus.

AHB-Lite

A subset of the full AMBA AHB protocol specification. It provides all of the basic functions required by the majority of AMBA AHB slave and master designs, particularly when used with a multi-layer AMBA interconnect. In most cases, the extra facilities provided by a full AMBA AHB interface are implemented more efficiently by using an AMBA AXI protocol interface.

Aligned

A data item stored at an address that is divisible by the number of bytes that defines the data size is said to be aligned. Aligned words and halfwords have addresses that are divisible by four and two respectively. The terms word-aligned and halfword-aligned therefore stipulate addresses that are divisible by four and two respectively.

AMBA

See Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture.

APB

See Advanced Peripheral Bus.

Architecture

The organization of hardware and/or software that characterizes a processor and its attached components, and enables devices with similar characteristics to be grouped together when describing their behavior, for example, Harvard architecture, instruction set architecture, ARMv6 architecture.

ARM instruction

A word that specifies an operation for an ARM processor in ARM state to perform. ARM instructions are word-aligned.

See Also ARM state, Thumb instruction, Thumb-2EE instruction.

ARM state

An operating state of the processor, in which it executes 32-bit ARM instructions.

See Also ARM instruction, Thumb state, ThumbEE state.

AXI

See Advanced eXtensible Interface.

Big-endian

Byte ordering scheme in which bytes of decreasing significance in a data word are stored at increasing addresses in memory.

See Also Little-endian and Endianness.

Branch folding

Branch folding is a technique where, on the prediction of most branches, the branch instruction is completely removed from the instruction stream presented to the execution pipeline. Branch folding can significantly improve the performance of branches, taking the CPI for branches below one.

Branch prediction

The process of predicting if conditional branches are to be taken or not in pipelined processors. Successfully predicting if branches are to be taken enables the processor to prefetch the instructions following a branch before the condition is fully resolved. Branch prediction can be done in software or by using custom hardware. Branch prediction techniques are categorized as static, in which the prediction decision is decided before run time, and dynamic, in which the prediction decision can change during program execution.

Breakpoint

A breakpoint is a mechanism provided by debuggers to identify an instruction at which program execution is to be halted. Breakpoints are inserted by the programmer to enable inspection of register contents, memory locations, variable values at fixed points in the program execution to test that the program is operating correctly. Breakpoints are removed after the program is successfully tested.

See Also Watchpoint.

Burst

A group of transfers to consecutive addresses. Because the addresses are consecutive, there is no requirement to supply an address for any of the transfers after the first one. This increases the speed at which the group of transfers can occur. Bursts over AMBA are controlled using signals to indicate the length of the burst and how the addresses are incremented.

Byte

An 8-bit data item.

Byte invariant

In a byte-invariant system, the address of each byte of memory remains unchanged when switching between little-endian and big-endian operation. When a data item larger than a byte is loaded from or stored to memory, the bytes making up that data item are arranged into the correct order depending on the endianness of the memory access. The ARM architecture supports byte-invariant systems in ARMv6 and later versions. When byte-invariant support is selected, unaligned halfword and word memory accesses are also supported. Multi-word accesses are expected to be word-aligned.

See Also Word-invariant.

Byte lane strobe

A signal that is used for unaligned or mixed-endian data accesses to determine which byte lanes are active in a transfer. One bit of this signal corresponds to eight bits of the data bus.

Clock gating

Gating a clock signal for a macrocell with a control signal, and using the modified clock that results to control the operating state of the macrocell.

Cold reset

Also known as power-on reset. Starting the processor by turning power on. Turning power off and then back on again clears main memory and many internal settings. Some program failures can lock up the processor and require a cold reset to enable the system to be used again. In other cases, only a warm reset is required.

See Also Warm reset.

Coprocessor

A processor that supplements the main processor. It carries out additional functions that the main processor cannot perform. Usually used for floating-point math calculations, signal processing, or memory management.

Core

A core is that part of a processor that contains the ALU, the datapath, the general-purpose registers, the Program Counter, and the instruction decode and control circuitry.

Core reset

See Warm reset.

CoreSight

The infrastructure for monitoring, tracing, and debugging a complete system on chip.

CPI

See Cycles per instruction.

Cycles Per instruction (CPI)

Cycles per instruction (or clocks per instruction) is a measure of the number of computer instructions that can be performed in one clock cycle. This figure of merit can be used to compare the performance of different CPUs that implement the same instruction set against each other. The lower the value, the better the performance.

DAP

See Debug Access Port.

Debug Access Port (DAP)

A TAP block that acts as an AMBA, AHB or AHB-Lite, master for access to a system bus. The DAP is the term used to encompass a set of modular blocks that support system wide debug. The DAP is a modular component, intended to be extendable to support optional access to multiple systems such as memory mapped AHB and CoreSight APB through a single debug interface.

Doubleword

A 64-bit data item. The contents are taken as being an unsigned integer unless otherwise stated.

EmbeddedICE logic

An on-chip logic block that provides TAP-based debug support for ARM processor cores. It is accessed through the TAP controller on the ARM core using the JTAG interface.

EmbeddedICE-RT

The JTAG-based hardware provided by debuggable ARM processors to aid debugging in real-time.

Embedded Trace Buffer (ETB)

The ETB provides on-chip storage of trace data using a configurable sized RAM.

Embedded Trace Macrocell (ETM)

A hardware macrocell that outputs instruction and data trace information on a trace port.

Endianness

Byte ordering. The scheme that determines the order in which successive bytes of a data word are stored in memory.

See Also Little-endian and Big-endian.

ETB

See Embedded Trace Buffer.

ETM

See Embedded Trace Macrocell.

Exception

A fault or error event that is considered serious enough to require that program execution is interrupted. Examples include attempting to perform an invalid memory access, external interrupts, and undefined instructions. When an exception occurs, normal program flow is interrupted and execution is resumed at the corresponding exception vector. This contains the first instruction of the interrupt handler to deal with the exception.

Exception vector

See Interrupt vector.

Fast context switch

In a multitasking system, the point at which the time-slice allocated to one process stops and the one for the next process starts. If processes are switched often enough, they can appear to a user to be running in parallel, in addition to being able to respond quicker to external events that might affect them.

In ARM processors, a fast context switch is caused by the selection of a non-zero PID value to switch the context to that of the next process. A fast context switch causes each Virtual Address for a memory access, generated by the ARM processor, to produce a Modified Virtual Address that is sent to the rest of the memory system to be used in place of a normal Virtual Address. For some cache control operations Virtual Addresses are passed to the memory system as data. In these cases no address modification takes place.

See Also Fast Context Switch Extension.

Fast Context Switch Extension (FCSE)

An extension to the ARM architecture that enables cached processors with an MMU to present different addresses to the rest of the memory system for different software processes, even when those processes are using identical addresses.

See Also Fast context switch.

FCSE

See Fast Context Switch Extension. .

Flat address mapping

A system of organizing memory in which each physical address contained within the memory space is the same as its corresponding virtual address.

Half-rate clocking

Half-rate clocking is a feature of the ETM. It means dividing the trace clock by two so that the TPA can sample trace data signals on both the rising and falling edges of the trace clock. The primary purpose of half-rate clocking is to reduce the signal transition rate on the trace clock of an ASIC for very high-speed systems.

Halting debug-mode

One of two mutually exclusive debug modes. In Halting debug-mode a debug event, such as a a breakpoint or watchpoint, causes the processor to enter a special Debug state. In Debug state the processor is controlled through the external debug interface. This interface also provides access to all processor state, coprocessor state, memory and input/output locations.

See Also Monitor debug-mode.

High vectors

Alternative locations for exception vectors. The high vector address range is near the top of the address space, rather than at the bottom.

Implementation-defined

Behavior that is not architecturally defined, but is defined and documented by individual implementations.

Instruction cycle count

The number of cycles for which an instruction occupies the Execute stage of the pipeline.

Interrupt vector

One of a number of fixed addresses in low memory, or in high memory if high vectors are configured, that contains the first instruction of the corresponding interrupt handler.

See Also High vectors.

Little-endian

Byte ordering scheme in which bytes of increasing significance in a data word are stored at increasing addresses in memory.

See Also Big-endian and Endianness.

Monitor debug-mode

One of two mutually exclusive debug modes. In Monitor debug-mode a debug event, such as a breakpoint or a watchpoint, causes a debug exception, generating either a Prefetch Abort exception or a Data Abort exception.

See Also Halting debug-mode.

Power-on reset

See Cold reset.

Prefetching

In pipelined processors, the process of fetching instructions from memory to fill up the pipeline before the preceding instructions have finished executing. Prefetching an instruction does not mean that the instruction must be executed.

Processor

A processor is the circuitry in a computer system required to process data using the computer instructions. It is an abbreviation of microprocessor. A clock source, power supplies, and main memory are also required to create a minimum complete working computer system.

Read

Reads are defined as memory operations that have the semantics of a load. That is, the ARM instructions LDM, LDRD, LDC, LDR, LDRT, LDRSH, LDRH, LDRSB, LDRB, LDRBT, LDREX, RFE, STREX, SWP, and SWPB, and the Thumb instructions LDM, LDR, LDRSH, LDRH, LDRSB, LDRB, and POP.

Reserved

A field in a control register or instruction format is reserved if the field is to be defined by the implementation, or produces Unpredictable results if the contents of the field are not zero. These fields are reserved for use in future extensions of the architecture or are implementation-specific. All reserved bits not used by the implementation must be written as 0 and read as 0.

SBO

See Should Be One.

SBZ

See Should Be Zero.

SBZP

See Should Be Zero or Preserved.

Scan chain

A scan chain is made up of serially-connected devices that implement boundary scan technology using a standard JTAG TAP interface. Each device contains at least one TAP controller containing shift registers that form the chain connected between TDI and TDO, through which test data is shifted. Processors can contain several shift registers to enable you to access selected parts of the device.

Should Be One (SBO)

Should be written as 1 (or all 1s for bit fields) by software. Writing 0 produces Unpredictable results.

Should Be Zero (SBZ)

Should be written as 0 (or all 0s for bit fields) by software. Writing 1 produces Unpredictable results.

Should Be Zero or Preserved (SBZP)

Should be written as 0 (or all 0s for bit fields) by software, or preserved by writing back the same value that has been previously read from the same field on the same processor.

Synchronization primitive

The memory synchronization primitive instructions are instructions that are used to ensure memory synchronization, that is, the LDREX, STREX, SWP, and SWPB instructions.

TAP

See Test Access Port.

Test Access Port (TAP)

The collection of four mandatory and one optional terminals that form the input/output and control interface to a JTAG boundary-scan architecture. The mandatory terminals are TDI, TDO, TMS, and TCK. The optional terminal is TRST. This signal is mandatory in ARM cores because it resets the debug logic.

Thumb instruction

One or two halfwords that specify an operation for an ARM processor in Thumb state to perform. Thumb instructions must be halfword-aligned. In the original Thumb ISA, all instructions are 16-bit. The Thumb-2 extension of the ISA provides both 16-bit and 32-bit instructions.

See Also ARM instruction, Thumb state, Thumb-2EE instruction.

Thumb state

An operating state of the processor, in which it executes 16-bit and 32-bit Thumb instructions.

See Also ARM state, Thumb instruction, ThumbEE state.

Thumb-2EE instruction

One or two halfwords that specify an operation for an ARM processor in ThumbEE state to perform. Thumb-2EE instructions must be halfword-aligned.

Thumb-2EE is an extension of the Thumb-2 architecture designed as a target for dynamically generated code, that is, code compiled on the device either shortly before or during execution from a portable bytecode or other intermediate or native representation.

See Also ARM instruction, Thumb instruction, ThumbEE state.

TPA

See Trace Port Analyzer.

Trace Port Analyzer (TPA)

A hardware device that captures trace information output on a trace port. This can be a low-cost product designed specifically for trace acquisition, or a logic analyzer.

Undefined

Indicates an instruction that generates an Undefined instruction trap. See the ARM Architectural Reference Manual for more information on ARM exceptions.

UNP

See Unpredictable.

Unpredictable (UNP)

For reads, the data returned when reading from this location is unpredictable. It can have any value. For writes, writing to this location causes unpredictable behavior, or an unpredictable change in device configuration. Unpredictable instructions must not halt or hang the processor, or any part of the system.

In an ETM context, means that the behavior of the ETM cannot be relied on. Such conditions have not been validated. When applied to the programming of an event resource, only the output of that event resource is Unpredictable.Unpredictable ETM behavior can affect the behavior of the entire system, because the ETM is capable of causing the core to enter debug state, and external outputs can be used for other purposes.

Warm reset

Also known as a core reset. Initializes the majority of the processor excluding the debug controller and debug logic. This type of reset is useful if you are using the debugging features of a processor.

Watchpoint

A watchpoint is a mechanism provided by debuggers to halt program execution when the data contained by a particular memory address is changed. Watchpoints are inserted by the programmer to enable inspection of register contents, memory locations, and variable values when memory is written to test that the program is operating correctly. Watchpoints are removed after the program is successfully tested.

See Also Breakpoint.

Word-invariant

In a word-invariant system, the address of each byte of memory changes when switching between little-endian and big-endian operation, in such a way that the byte with address A in one endianness has address A EOR 3 in the other endianness. As a result, each aligned word of memory always consists of the same four bytes of memory in the same order, regardless of endianness. The change of endianness occurs because of the change to the byte addresses, not because the bytes are rearranged.The ARM architecture supports word-invariant systems in ARMv3 and later versions. When word-invariant support is selected, the behavior of load or store instructions that are given unaligned addresses is instruction-specific, and is in general not the expected behavior for an unaligned access. It is recommended that word-invariant systems use the endianness that produces the desired byte addresses at all times, apart possibly from very early in their reset handlers before they have set up the endianness, and that this early part of the reset handler must use only aligned word memory accesses.

See Also Byte-invariant.

Write

Writes are defined as operations that have the semantics of a store. That is, the ARM instructions SRS, STM, STRD, STC, STRT, STRH, STRB, STRBT, STREX, SWP, and SWPB, and the Thumb instructions STM, STR, STRH, STRB, and PUSH.

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