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LDMDB, LDMEA

Load Multiple Decrement Before (Empty Ascending) loads multiple registers from consecutive memory locations using an address from a base register. The consecutive memory locations end just below this address, and the address of the lowest of those locations can optionally be written back to the base register.

The lowest-numbered register is loaded from the lowest memory address, through to the highest-numbered register from the highest memory address. See also Encoding of lists of general-purpose registers and the PC.

Armv8.2 permits the deprecation of some Load Multiple ordering behaviors in AArch32 state, for more information see ARMv8.2-LSMAOC. The registers loaded can include the PC, causing a branch to a loaded address. This is an interworking branch, see Pseudocode description of operations on the AArch32 general-purpose registers and the PC. Related system instructions are LDM (User registers) and LDM (exception return).

It has encodings from the following instruction sets: A32 ( A1 ) and T32 ( T1 ) .

A1

313029282726252423222120191817161514131211109876543210
!= 1111100100W1Rnregister_list
cond

A1

LDMDB{<c>}{<q>} <Rn>{!}, <registers> // (Preferred syntax)

LDMEA{<c>}{<q>} <Rn>{!}, <registers> // (Alternate syntax, Empty Ascending stack)

n = UInt(Rn);  registers = register_list;  wback = (W == '1');
if n == 15 || BitCount(registers) < 1 then UNPREDICTABLE;
if wback && registers<n> == '1' then UNPREDICTABLE;

CONSTRAINED UNPREDICTABLE behavior

If wback && registers<n> == '1', then one of the following behaviors must occur:

  • The instruction is undefined.
  • The instruction executes as NOP.
  • The instruction performs all of the loads using the specified addressing mode and the content of the register that is written back is unknown. In addition, if an exception occurs during such an instruction, the base address might be corrupted so that the instruction cannot be repeated.

If BitCount(registers) < 1, then one of the following behaviors must occur:

  • The instruction is undefined.
  • The instruction executes as NOP.
  • The instruction executes as LDM with the same addressing mode but targeting an unspecified set of registers. These registers might include R15. If the instruction specifies writeback, the modification to the base address on writeback might differ from the number of registers loaded.

T1

15141312111098765432101514131211109876543210
1110100100W1RnPMregister_list

T1

LDMDB{<c>}{<q>} <Rn>{!}, <registers> // (Preferred syntax)

LDMEA{<c>}{<q>} <Rn>{!}, <registers> // (Alternate syntax, Empty Ascending stack)

n = UInt(Rn);  registers = P:M:register_list;  wback = (W == '1');
if n == 15 || BitCount(registers) < 2 || (P == '1' && M == '1') then UNPREDICTABLE;
if wback && registers<n> == '1' then UNPREDICTABLE;
if registers<13> == '1' then UNPREDICTABLE;
if registers<15> == '1' && InITBlock() && !LastInITBlock() then UNPREDICTABLE;

CONSTRAINED UNPREDICTABLE behavior

If wback && registers<n> == '1', then one of the following behaviors must occur:

  • The instruction is undefined.
  • The instruction executes as NOP.
  • The instruction performs all of the loads using the specified addressing mode and the content of the register that is written back is unknown. In addition, if an exception occurs during such an instruction, the base address might be corrupted so that the instruction cannot be repeated.

If BitCount(registers) < 1, then one of the following behaviors must occur:

  • The instruction is undefined.
  • The instruction executes as NOP.
  • The instruction executes as LDM with the same addressing mode but targeting an unspecified set of registers. These registers might include R15. If the instruction specifies writeback, the modification to the base address on writeback might differ from the number of registers loaded.

If BitCount(registers) == 1, then one of the following behaviors must occur:

  • The instruction is undefined.
  • The instruction executes as NOP.
  • The instruction loads a single register using the specified addressing modes.
  • The instruction executes as LDM with the same addressing mode but targeting an unspecified set of registers. These registers might include R15.

If registers<13> == '1', then one of the following behaviors must occur:

  • The instruction is undefined.
  • The instruction executes as NOP.
  • The instruction performs all of the loads using the specified addressing mode, but R13 is unknown.

If P == '1' && M == '1', then one of the following behaviors must occur:

  • The instruction is undefined.
  • The instruction executes as NOP.
  • The instruction loads the register list and either R14 or R15, both R14 and R15, or neither of these registers.

For more information about the constrained unpredictable behavior of this instruction, see Architectural Constraints on UNPREDICTABLE behaviors.

Assembler Symbols

<c>

See Standard assembler syntax fields.

<q>

See Standard assembler syntax fields.

<Rn>

Is the general-purpose base register, encoded in the "Rn" field.

!

The address adjusted by the size of the data loaded is written back to the base register. If specified, it is encoded in the "W" field as 1, otherwise this field defaults to 0.

<registers>

For encoding A1: is a list of one or more registers to be loaded, separated by commas and surrounded by { and }.

The PC can be in the list.

Arm deprecates using these instructions with both the LR and the PC in the list.

For encoding T1: is a list of one or more registers to be loaded, separated by commas and surrounded by { and }. The registers in the list must be in the range R0-R12, encoded in the "register_list" field, and can optionally contain one of the LR or the PC. If the LR is in the list, the "M" field is set to 1, otherwise it defaults to 0. If the PC is in the list, the "P" field is set to 1, otherwise it defaults to 0.

If the PC is in the list:

  • The LR must not be in the list.
  • The instruction must be either outside any IT block, or the last instruction in an IT block.

Operation

if ConditionPassed() then
    EncodingSpecificOperations();
    address = R[n] - 4*BitCount(registers);
    for i = 0 to 14
        if registers<i> == '1' then
            R[i] = MemA[address,4];  address = address + 4;
    if registers<15> == '1' then
        LoadWritePC(MemA[address,4]);
    if wback && registers<n> == '0' then R[n] = R[n] - 4*BitCount(registers);
    if wback && registers<n> == '1' then R[n] = bits(32) UNKNOWN;

Operational information

If CPSR.DIT is 1, the timing of this instruction is insensitive to the value of the data being loaded or stored.

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