You copied the Doc URL to your clipboard.


Load Register Signed Halfword (unprivileged) loads a halfword from memory, sign-extends it to 32 bits or 64 bits, and writes the result to a register. The address that is used for the load is calculated from a base register and an immediate offset.

Memory accesses made by the instruction behave as if the instruction was executed at EL0 if the Effective value of PSTATE.UAO is 0 and either:

  • The instruction is executed at EL1.
  • The instruction is executed at EL2 when the Effective value of HCR_EL2.{E2H, TGE} is {1, 1}.

Otherwise, the memory access operates with the restrictions determined by the Exception level at which the instruction is executed. For information about memory accesses, see Load/Store addressing modes.


32-bit (opc == 11)

LDTRSH <Wt>, [<Xn|SP>{, #<simm>}]

64-bit (opc == 10)

LDTRSH <Xt>, [<Xn|SP>{, #<simm>}]

bits(64) offset = SignExtend(imm9, 64);

Assembler Symbols


Is the 32-bit name of the general-purpose register to be transferred, encoded in the "Rt" field.


Is the 64-bit name of the general-purpose register to be transferred, encoded in the "Rt" field.


Is the 64-bit name of the general-purpose base register or stack pointer, encoded in the "Rn" field.


Is the optional signed immediate byte offset, in the range -256 to 255, defaulting to 0 and encoded in the "imm9" field.

Shared Decode

integer n = UInt(Rn);
integer t = UInt(Rt);

unpriv_at_el1 = PSTATE.EL == EL1 && !(EL2Enabled() && HaveNVExt() && HCR_EL2.<NV,NV1> == '11');
unpriv_at_el2 = PSTATE.EL == EL2 && HaveVirtHostExt() && HCR_EL2.<E2H,TGE> == '11';

user_access_override = HaveUAOExt() && PSTATE.UAO == '1';
if !user_access_override && (unpriv_at_el1 || unpriv_at_el2) then
    acctype = AccType_UNPRIV;
    acctype = AccType_NORMAL;

MemOp memop;
boolean signed;
integer regsize;

if opc<1> == '0' then
    // store or zero-extending load
    memop = if opc<0> == '1' then MemOp_LOAD else MemOp_STORE;
    regsize = 32;
    signed = FALSE;
    // sign-extending load
    memop = MemOp_LOAD;
    regsize = if opc<0> == '1' then 32 else 64;
    signed = TRUE;

boolean tag_checked = memop != MemOp_PREFETCH && (n != 31);


if HaveMTEExt() then

bits(64) address;
bits(16) data;

if n == 31 then
    if memop != MemOp_PREFETCH then CheckSPAlignment();
    address = SP[];
    address = X[n];

address = address + offset;

case memop of
    when MemOp_STORE
        data = X[t];
        Mem[address, 2, acctype] = data;

    when MemOp_LOAD
        data = Mem[address, 2, acctype];
        if signed then
            X[t] = SignExtend(data, regsize);
            X[t] = ZeroExtend(data, regsize);

    when MemOp_PREFETCH
        Prefetch(address, t<4:0>);

Operational information

If PSTATE.DIT is 1, the timing of this instruction is insensitive to the value of the data being loaded or stored.