With the ARMv7 Security Extensions, Monitor mode is used by software to switch between the Secure and Non-secure state. This mode is a peer of the other privileged modes within the Secure state.
For the ARMv8 architecture, when EL3 is using AArch32 the system behaves as ARMv7 to ensure full compatibility, with the result that all the privileged modes within the Secure state are treated as being at EL3.
The security model for AArch32 is shown in Figure 17.4. In this scenario, AArch32 is using EL3 to provide a Secure OS and monitor.
In keeping with the ARMv7 architecture, the Secure state EL1 and EL0 have a different Virtual Address space from the Non-secure state EL1 and EL0. This permits secure side code from the ARMv7 32-bit architecture to be used in a system with a 64-bit operating system or hypervisor running on the Non-secure side.
Figure 17.5 shows the security model when AArch64 is using EL3 to provide a Secure monitor. The EL3 state is not available to AArch32, but EL1 can be used for the secure OS. When EL3 is using AArch64, the EL3 level is used to execute the code responsible for switching between the Non-secure state and the Secure state.