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Handling an exception

In microcontroller profiles, exception prioritization, nesting of exceptions, and saving of corruptible registers are handled entirely by the processor to provide efficiency and to minimize interrupt latency.

Interrupts are automatically enabled on entry to every exception handler which means that you must remove any top-level reentrant code from projects written for other processors. If you require interrupts to be disabled then you must handle this in your code and ensure that they are enabled on return from an exception.


Exception handlers must clear the interrupt source.

Microcontroller profiles have no FIQ input. Any peripheral that signals an FIQ on projects from other processors must be moved to a high-priority external interrupt. It might be necessary to check that the handler for this kind of interrupt does not expect to use the banked FIQ registers, because microcontroller profiles do not have banked registers, and you must stack R8-R12 as for any other normal IRQ handler.

Microcontroller profiles also provide a high priority Non Maskable Interrupt (NMI) which you cannot disable.

Simple C exception handler example

Exception handlers for microcontroller profiles are not required to save or restore the system state and can be written as ordinary, ABI-compliant C functions. However, it is recommended that you use the __irq keyword to identify the function as an interrupt routine, see the following example.

__irq void SysTickHandler(void)
    printf("----- SysTick Interrupt -----");

byte stack alignment

The Application Binary Interface (ABI) for the ARM Architecture requires that the stack must be 8-byte aligned on all external interfaces, such as calls between functions in different source files. However, code does not have to maintain 8-byte stack alignment internally, for example in leaf functions. This means that when an IRQ occurs the stack might not be correctly 8-byte aligned.

ARMv7-M processors can automatically align the stack pointer when an exception occurs. You can enable this behavior by setting STKALIGN (bit 9) in the Configuration Control Register at address 0xE000ED14.

ARMv6-M processors always enable this behavior however, it is recommended that you manually set STKALIGN (bit 9) so that your image is forward compatible with ARMv7-M processors.


If you are using a revision 0 Cortex-M3 processor STKALIGN is not supported, therefore the adjustment is not performed in hardware and needs to be done by software. The compiler can generate code in your IRQ handlers that correctly aligns the stack. To do this you must prefix your IRQ handlers with __irq and use the --cpu=Cortex-M3-rev0 compiler switch, not --cpu=Cortex-M3.