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Unaligned pointers in C and C++ code

If you want to define a pointer that can point to a word at any address, you must specify the __packed qualifier.

By default, the compiler expects conventional C and C++ pointers to point to naturally aligned words in memory because this enables the compiler to generate more efficient code.

For example, to specify an unaligned pointer:

__packed int *pi; // pointer to unaligned int

When a pointer is declared as __packed, the compiler generates code that correctly accesses the dereferenced value of the pointer, regardless of its alignment. The generated code consists of a sequence of byte accesses, or variable alignment-dependent shifting and masking instructions, rather than a simple LDR instruction. Consequently, declaring a pointer as __packed incurs a performance and code size penalty.

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