The C library requires you to specify where the stack pointer
begins. If you intend to use ARM library functions that use the
heap, for example,
or if you define
main(), the C library also requires
you to specify which region of memory the heap is intially expected
The region of memory used by the heap can be extended at a later stage of program execution, if required.
You can specify where the stack pointer begins, and which region of memory the heap is intially expected to use, with any of the following methods:
Define the symbol
__intial_spto point to the top of the stack. If using the heap, also define symbols
In a scatter file, either:
if you do not intend to use the heap, only define an
If you define an
ARM_LIB_STACKHEAPregion, the stack starts at the top of that region. The heap starts at the bottom.
The above two methods are the only methods that microlib supports, of defining where the stack pointer starts and of defining the heap bounds.
__user_setup_stackheap()to set up the stack pointer and return the bounds of the intial heap region.
If you are using legacy code that uses
__user_initial_stackheap(), and you do not want to replace
__user_setup_stackheap(), continue to use
ARM recommends that you switch to using
__user_setup_stackheap()if you are still using
__user_initial_stackheap(), unless your implementation of
specialized in some way such that it is complex enough to require its own temporary stack to run on before it has created the proper stack
has some user-specific special requirement that means it has to be implemented in C rather than in assembly language.
The initial stack pointer must be aligned to a multiple of eight bytes.
By default, if memory allocated for the heap is destined to
overlap with memory that lies in close proximity with the stack,
the potential collision of heap and stack is automatically detected
and the requested heap allocation fails. If you do not require this
automatic collision detection, you can save a small amount of code
size by disabling it with
#pragma import __use_two_region_memory.
The memory allocation functions (
posix_memalign()) attempt to detect
allocations that collide with the current stack pointer. Such detection
cannot be guaranteed to always be successful.
Although it is possible to automatically detect expansion of the heap into the stack, it is not possible to automatically detect expansion of the stack into heap memory.
For legacy purposes, it is possible for you to bypass all of these methods and behavior. You can do this by defining the following functions to perform your own stack and heap memory management:
ARM C and C++ Libraries and Floating-Point Support Reference:
Using the Linker:
Developing Software for ARM Processors: