The ARM946E-S processor core offers the full advantage of the enhanced DSP capability of the ARM9E-S processor core. The ARM9E-S processor core executes an extended ARM5vT instruction set which includes new multiplier and saturating arithmetic functions. Multiply instructions are processed faster using a single-cycle 32x16 implementation. There are 32x16 and 16x16 multiply instructions, and the pipeline allows one multiply to start each cycle. New saturating arithmetic improves efficiency by automatically selecting saturated behavior during execution. Saturating arithmetic is used to set limits on signal processing calculations to minimize the effect of noise or signal errors. All of these instructions are beneficial for algorithms such as those which implement GSM protocols, Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) and state space servo control for HDDs.